Data network effects differ from other types of network effects in that they don't enable direct connections between users. Instead, users of products like Waze, Tripadvisor, Mapillary, etc. are connected indirectly — via the information they feed into the product and the information they consume. As a result, these two factors are the primary determinants of monetization as well. The animation in the post below shows how these two factors affect monetization options on data networks.
Link to complete post - https://medium.com/breadcrumb/how-to-monetize-data-networks-focus-on-acquisition-and-usage-1c822aa67b3e